hello Hi. How may I help you? Hi. I am here for my son, Gui. He was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and we are here to see Dr. Jain. Ok. So I have some papers for you to fill out, and after all that, we will get you back there. Ok. I’m done. So, as you already know, your diabetes is caused by high blood sugar. Yes, Exactly. So in here are a few things that will help you monitor and check your blood sugar. So there is a blood sugar monitor. So, Gui, this is a lancet. You have to prick your finger, then put a drop of blood in here, and then it will tell you your blood sugar. And then there is also a dosing pen right there. It is an insulin dosing pen which you use when your body needs insulin Yeah. He already know that. Ok. I can take you guys back now. Ok. So you have your materials. There are two, major short term complications that can occur with your diabetes, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia is when your blood sugar is too high. It can be in two forms; after fasting and after a meal. The most common symptoms include increased thirst, blurred vision, constant fatigue, and frequent urination. The second complication is hypoglycemia. when, your blood sugar is too low. Your body will start releasing the hormone adrenaline as a reaction to the decrease in blood sugar, leading to severe symptoms. You two certainly came prepared! But yes, some of these symptoms include shakiness, sweating, hunger, anxiety, and dizziness. Ok. This is Dr. Jain. Hi. I’m Dr. Jain, and today I’m just going to go over some things you two should be aware of with your type 1 diabetes. So in your box, you have your glucose monitor and lancet, and you need to frequently measure your blood glucose levels. Unlike type 2 diabetes, you need to do this multiple times a day. Type 2 diabetics only need to check once a day to make sure they are in the range. So the target range for preprandial is 70-130 mg/dL. This is what your sugar levels should be before a meal because preprandial is before the meal. Now, the target for postprandial should never exceed 180 mg/dL. And postprandial is after a meal And you just want to stay between 130 and 180, and that is your target range. So if your glucose monitor says you’re within that, you’re good to go. So there is another test that you’re going to have to take called an A1C test and this is an average of Gui’s glucose levels over the past 3 months. and the target range for this is to have it less than 7%. But what if I take one of the tests and my blood sugar levels are not in the range? How can I help bring it back to normal? So you’ll check your blood glucose level with your blood sugar monitor and depending on what it shows, you have to make necessary adjustments. If it’s high, you have to take insulin and if it’s low, you have to take in more insulin . If it is in the normal range, you don’t have to worry about anything. So high blood glucose levels can be cause by being under stress, not taking enough insulin, or being ill. Ok. So this can be treated by injecting insulin, right? drinking plenty of water, and having a good diet. So you have to pay attention to your blood sugar because if high blood sugar is left untreated, it can lead to ketoacidosis. and long term complications include heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and nerve damage. Additionally, the blood sugar monitor may also tell you that your blood sugar is too low. Now, this is a very dangerous situation to be in so you need to pay special attention to this. This can be caused by taking too much insulin, skipping meals, exercising too much, or something as simple as being sick, or just feeling stressed. For this scenerio, you need to pay special attention to the symptoms. they start with nervousness, dizziness, trembling, sweating, hunger, weakness, and palpitations. But, if left untreated, and you DO NOT want it to get to here, it can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Like I said, extremely dangerous. Ok. But it’s okay. Low blood sugar only becomes a major problem if you don’t check your blood glucose frequently enough. So, to tread low blood sugar, you want to inject a dose of glucagon, eat plenty of carbs, have a sugary drink. But, the key is, you want to check frequently and notice that it is going low before something bad happens. Ok. So when exactly should I check my blood glucose levels? That’s a good question. So the best times to check are before and after eating, and before and after exercise. Those are the main places where something bad could happen. And you also want to check at intervals during the night and when you go to sleep, and after you wake up. You want to check even more frequently if you know you are feeling stressed by a project or something happening, or if you are sick. Ok. One more question. I saw online this thing called ketoacidosis and I don’t know what that is. Also, what are ketones. Can you explain that to me? So ketones are chemical substances that are produced when your cells use fat (not carbs) for energy. Ketones are dangerous because they make your blood extremely acidic. And some of the symptoms include, thirst, nausea, vomit, abdominal pain, constant tiredness, confusion, difficulty thinking, and you should test for ketones if you experience any of these symptoms. And to test, you just have to take a urine test with a test strip. If you test postitve for ketones, this indicates that your body is not using carbs for energy, but is using fat. Ok. So I get it now. So it’s when your body uses fat and not glucose for energy. And, if he has any of the symptoms, we have to check for them. Correct? Yes, that’s it. So that’s all I have for you tonight. Any questions, comments, concerns? No, we’re good. So you’re going to be coming here a lot, and I’m sure we will get to know each other. Be sure to keep checking your levels and if anything happens, call the office. Thank you.